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Full text of "Indians at Work"

INDIANS 

AT WORK 



NOTES AND COMMENTS ON THE CONTRIBUTIONS 



By Floyd W. LaRouche 
In Charge Of Information And Publications 

The poem on the inside of the back cover was written by the wife of a 
traveling auditor in the Indian Service. Until last year she was a teacher in the 
Pima Indian School at Sacaton, Arizona. She was attuned to the voices of little peo- 
ple and she recognized "the charm with which Indian children speak." Further she 
says, "I have been interested in the creative expression of Indian children for a long 
time." We hope she continues to be interested for a long time to come. 

The front cover picture is of Mrs. Oscar Gasper, wife of a member of 
the Tribal Council at Zuni, grinding corn in the ancient way. She uses a piece of 
stone called a "mano" which she rubs over a stone metate. Photo by Frank Werner, 
Department of the Interior photographer. 

The frontispiece picture was made in the pottery market at Riobamba, 
Ecuador and is reproduced through the courtesy of the Grace Line. The Indian chil- 
dren on the back cover are a brother and sister at Tesuque Pueblo, photographed by 
Peter Sekaer of the Rural Electrification Administration, who also is responsible for 
the picture on page 10 of the first-graders at Fort Sill Indian School in Oklahoma, 
tending their poultry, and the Kiowa tribal meeting on page 25. 

The Rosebud Sioux delegation from South Dakota was photographed by 
Glen Peart, Interior Department photographer, during a conference with Willard W. 
Beatty and Paul Fickinger, director and assistant director of Indian Education, and 
C. R. Whitlock, Rosebud Superintendent. The picture appears on page 2 and the mem- 
bers of the delegation are: Thomas F. Whiting, President of the Council; Louis Iron 
Shell, Vice-President, Andrew Night Pipe, council member; George Rogers, Jr., 
council member; and Thomas A. Flood, Tribal Council Secretary. 

Navajo pictures on page 4 and 23 are by H. Armstrong Roberts. The 
photo of the Indian boy perfecting a piece of silverwork at the Albuquerque Indian 
School is by Transcontinental and Western Air, Inc. 

Indians have shown particular skill in the work they have done in air- 
craft construction. The two photographs selected for this issue and used on pages 16 
and 17 were chosen from a great variety of very excellent examples. On page 16 Joe 
Segura, Mission Indian, is welding sub- assembly airplane parts. The photo was made 
by the North American Aviation Company and submitted by Donald H. Biery, Superin- 
tendent of the Sherman Indian Institute, Riverside, California, where such training is 
being given. The other picture is of John Bates, Kiowa- Wichita. It was made by 
Lawrence Kronquist and furnished by the Douglas Aircraft Company. 

William Red Owl, Rosebud Sioux Indian, was trained by CCC-ID as a me- 
chanic. He is a graduate of the Flandreau Indian School, Flandreau, South Dakota. 
He was a CCC-ID leader at the Fort Totten Agency before his enlistment in the 
Army at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, where he is now making good use of his experi- 
ence and training as a mechanic. His picture on page 29 is by Claude Cornwall, Su- 
pervisor of CCC-ID Enrollee Training, who apparently believes in practicing what he 
preaches (see page 34 of this issue). CCC-ID Indians installing a new clutch on a 
truck as a part of the Defense Training course at Chemawa, Oregon Indian School, 
prompted Gerritt Smith to make the picture on page 31. 

Note To Editors: 

Text in this magazine is available for reprinting 
as desired. Pictures will be supplied. 



Collection of Native North American Indian Books, 
Historical Books, Atlases, plus other important au- 
thors and family heirloom books. 
As of 12-31-93 

INDIANS AT WORK 



Earl Ford McNauehtonVJ 




in This issue 

Comments On The Contributions Inside Front Cover 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Indians Of The Americas Warned Of Hitler Slavery 3 

President Establishes National Indian Institute 

For The United States 5 

The Individual Is Important '. Willard W. Beatty 7 

Carson Students Working In School Dairy 

(Photo by Arthur Rothstein) 6 

With Expert Guidance We Examine Some Results Of 

White Rule of Indians 11 

An Indian, An Educator, And A War Veteran 12 

Indians Of Nevada Speak For Themselves 13 

Pyramid Lake Tribal Council Confers With Indian 

Service Officials (Photo by Arthur Rothstein) 13 

Paiute Indians Harvesting Hay, Carson Agency, 

Nevada (Photo by Arthur Rothstein) 1U 

Nevada Tribes Make 100 Per Cent Credit Record Walter V. Woehlke 15 

Round-Up At Carson (Photo by Arthur Rothstein) 15 

Indians In The News 18 

Mary Ann Pepo, Paiute Basket Maker (Photo by 

Arthur Rothstein) -.. 19 

Mrs. Clarence Smith, San Carlos Apache, Feeds Her 

Flock of Poultry (Photo by Frank Werner) 20 

President Of Mexico Tells Of Indian Advancement 22 

What Do The Old Men Say? D'Arcy McNickle 2U 

Book Review: "The Last Frontier" Eleanor Williams 28 

She Did It All With Rice 28 

J. George Wright Dies 28 

Indians Conserving And Rebuilding Their Resources 

Through CCC-ID 29 

Navajo CCC Worker (Photo by Milton Snow) 33 

Just What Is News? Claude C. Cornwall .- 3U 

Little Indians Speak Juanita Bell Inside Back Cover 



&NITE0 STATES (DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR * OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS*WA5HINGTDN, D C 



s 



AT WORK 

A News Sheet For INDIANS and me INDIAN SERVICE 



VOLUME IX DECEMBER 1941 NUMBER 4 

The Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Council, Thomas F. Whiting, sum- 
ming up many conferences, in Washington, said (I paraphrase): 

"We have not had much to say about relief. Relief is necessary. We 
know that you know it is and that you are doing all you can. But now, and from now 
on, we are going to play down, not play up, the subject of relief. Through many pre- 
vious years the subject of relief has come first and all other subjects afterward 
when we have conferred at Washington. It is not going to be that way in the future." 

These were very important words. Physically considered, the Rosebud 
Sioux are almost as much in need of relief now as they were last year, or five, or ten 
years ago. But with each year, some steps have been taken toward new, non-relief 
goals. With each year, in the Rosebud communities, discussion has moved a little 
further across from relief to positive enterprise and to the long-run future. What 
decisively matters is that the mental working of the Rosebud Sioux leadership has 
recast itself. And this may be more important, even physically speaking, as time 
goes on, than the addition of a million acres of good land would be. Tremendously 
heartening were those sincere words of the Rosebud Chairman! 

******** 

Dr. John Provinse, so long identified with the Navajo Service, and one 
of the best of anthropologists, called to my attention "Behind God's Back", a book on 
Africa by Negley Farson. (BEHIND GOD'S BACK. Harcourt, Brace and Company, 
Inc., New York City, $3.50). I have never read quite this sort of book before. It has 
the simplicity of a man's letters to his folks back home. It has mythical yet true ad- 
venture. It has unpretentious comment upon extraordinary facts by a free intelli- 
gence imbued with human feeling and with sense of humor: that means, it has pene- 
tration, and it gaily leads the reader to the edges of profundity. 




This book - by its facts ana its running commentary - sheds exciting 
suggestions upon race-relations; upon colonial administration, and "indirect rule"; 



upon human ecology and total ecology. But first and last it is just grand reading . I 
thought that I would quote some passages of it, but they are too many! But I must 
quote just one. In Ovamboland, Southwest Africa, are 117,000 natives. "They live 
in their traditional way under an indirect rule that is one of the most altruistic in 
all Africa." How many white officials administer this indirect rule? Eight (8). No 
more. 

******* 

On page 11 will be found a brief account of an important research under- 
taking now being launched. This undertaking moves toward the obscure center not 
only of the Indian problem but of the human problem in our fast- changing world. 
Most of the observers and analysts will be men and women now regularly employed 
in our own Indian Service. 

Two other, and somewhat related, research projects are now under way. 
One of these is a field study of the food-habits of Indian tribes. What carry-over 



3 



from the tribal past; what changes due to white contact and government influence; 
how can the food-habits be bettered; what unused food resources exist, which Indians 
might use? The first of the studies will be made among the Navajos, Hopis and Pap- 
agos. The coordinator of these studies is Dr. Fred Eggan of the Department of An- 
thropology of the University of Chicago. The project is a cooperative one between 
the University and the Indian Service., 

The other research project is partly finished already, although its exper- 
imental applications are as yet in the future. Doctors Alexander H. and Dorothea C. 
Leighton, of the Johns Hopkins Medical School, lived for several months among the 
Ramah Navajos, studying the therapeutic uses of Navajo native medicine. They dis- 
covered that medicine-men had an important preventative and curative function, in 
the psychical and functional area of Navajo suffering and malady. 

Now, in behalf of Indian Service, they are proceeding to shape a handbook 
which will show how our modern medicine may be interpreted to the Navajos and how 
the Navajos' ancient medicine can be interpreted to us - and particularly to our med- 
ical and health service. 

A future stage of this project will be the complete physical examination 
of the Navajos in a selected area, this being a preliminary to the (hoped-for) final and 
fruition stage when health ministration will be made a cooperative service between 
modern and native medicine. Thus may modern medicine reach to the Navajos 
through- and- through, while in its own sphere of the spirit and heart the native medi- 
cine will clear anxieties away, open the blocked passages through which hope and 
power may flow, and more fully evoke that "natura medicatrix deep-seated within 
the laboring breast." 



€f „ JT T It Attn. 



Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 
30,000,000 INDIANS OF THE AMERICAS WARNED OF HITLER SLAVERY 

(Reprinted from Science Service, October 27, 19A1) 

A warning to 30,000,000 Indians of the Americas that success of Hitler's 
plans for the Western Hemisphere would doom Indians to slavery or extinction was 
sounded by Commissioner John Collier of the Office of Indian Affairs in a radio ad- 
dress. Striking at German efforts to appeal to Indians by pronouncing Indians Ar- 
yans", Mr. Collier declared: 

"The Indians are a Mongoloid race. They are not Aryans. Hitler's plan 
dooms them to eternal slavery if they do not resist the slave- master and to total ex- 
tinction if they do resist the slave- master." 

Freedom is the passion of the Indian, and there can be no doubt of the 
side which the Indian will take in the world struggle which involves us all, added the 
Commissioner. If Nazi plans fail, a bright future for the millions of Indians in the 
New World is foreseen by Mr. Collier. The Indians are not likely to merge with the 
blood stream of the white race at any early time, he stated. Instead, they are likely to 
increase in numbers, retaining their biological identity for a thousand years to come, 
and will become "full citizens of their nations, their hemisphere, and their world. 



5 



PRESIDENT ESTABLISHES NATIONAL INDIAN INSTITUTE 

Pursuant to the Convention creating the Inter-American Indian Institute, 
President Roosevelt has signed an order establishing in the Department of the Inter- 
ior a National Indian Institute for the United States, affiliated with the Inter-Ameri- 
can Indian Institute. The National Indian Institute will perform within the United 
States functions comparable to those which the Inter-American Indian Institute per- 
forms among the American nations. It will: 

"(a) Initiate and promote collaboration in the fields of Indian administra- 
tion and the study of the Indian among Federal, State and Private agencies, learned 
societies, and scholars in the United States and the Inter-American Indian Institute, 
and through the Institute with governmental agencies, learned societies and scholars 
in the other American countries. 

"(b) Collaborate with the Inter-American Indian Institute, learned so- 
cieties, and foundations in the coordination, development, and administration of re- 
search projects and studies relating to the Indian. 

"(c) Maintain liaison between agencies of the United States Government 
directly or indirectly concerned with Indian administration or Indian studies in this 
or other countries for the purpose of coordinating cooperation by the United States 
with other American nations in regard to Indian matters. 

"(d) Direct the preparation and publication of materials dealing with In- 
dian administration in the United States of interest to the other American nations, 
and to publish such other materials as may be required in connection with authorized 
activities. 

"(e) Assemble and prepare library material and bibliographies dealing 
with Indian problems. 

"(f) Collaborate with the Inter -American Indian Institute in planning for 
the Inter-American Conference on Indian Life. 

"(g) Submit an annual report to the Inter-American Indian Institute." 

The National Indian Institute will use the administrative facilities of the 
Office of Indian Affairs and will function under the guidance of a Policy Board com- 
posed of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, two or more members to be appointed 
by the Secretary of the Interior, one of whom shall be an Indian, and one representa- 
tive each to be designated by the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Agriculture, the 
Smithsonian Institution, the Librarian of Congress, the National Research Council, 
the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies. 

Secretary Ickes has already appointed three representatives of the Inter- 
ior Department, who are Assistant Secretary Oscar L. Chapman, designated as chair- 
man of the Board, Mr. Rene D'Harnoncourt, and Mr. D'Arcy McNickle who will serve 
as Indian representative. 

Secretary Ickes has designated the Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
to serve as ex officio director of the new Institute. The Commissioner has also been 
appointed as representative of the United States on the governing board of the Inter- 
American Indian Institute. 



7 



THE INDIVIDUAL IS IMPORTANT 

By Willard W. Beatty, Director of Education 

For many years there has been a growing group of educators who have 
believed that going to school and learning things well, could be fun. They went so far 
as to assume that the more fun students got out of going to school, the harder they 
would work, and the more they would accomplish. 

At the beginning, nobody was quite clear as to just how incentives were 
to be developed which would result in work becoming fun. It is generally recognized 
that the more successful a person is at a given skill, the more he enjoys practicing 
that skill. Dubs don't continue playing baseball, skating, or bowling very long, while 
those who feel the satisfactions of achievement are apt to put in long hours of addi- 
tional preparation and effort. In applying such revolutionary ideas to education, the 
experimenters were in conflict with the general attitude toward education held by 
most people, including teachers, who for a long time had thought of schools as places 
where children were gathered together and forced to do unpleasant things. The very 
unpleasantness attached to some educational experiences was supposed to be merito- 
rious, in much the same way as our ancestors once said of medicine. ' The worse it 
tastes, the better it is for you." 

Gradually these progressives in education evolved through a good deal of 
experience some successful principles for obtaining the kind of intellectual effort 
which they sought. 

Successful Principles 

(1) The greater share children play in planning educational experiences, 
the more interested they become and (all things being equal), the harder they work; 
(2) The more responsibility they feel for the outcome of the work which they are do- 
ing, the harder they will work; (3) The more individual initiative they are permitted 
to show in planning their work, the more fun they get out of it, and the more work 
they do; (4) Maximum effort correlates closely with careful planning and clearly ac- 
cepted objectives; (5) Lack of well-planned objectives leads to time wasting and loss 
of interest; (6) The harder people work for ends which they accept as their own, the 
happier they are likely to be in what they are doing; (7) Freedom under responsibil- 
ity develops self-discipline; (8) There is, of course, a converse to practically all 
of these principles. Routine work without understood purposes is dull and discourag- 
ing. 

Freedom without responsibility leads to license. Responsibility without 
freedom produces frustration. 

It hasn't always been easy to apply these principles in school practice be- 
cause the people who understood their meaning have been limited in number. The 
idea of permitting children to share in planning has been thought of by half-baked 
progressives and dyed-in-the-wool conservatives both as a "go as you please ap- 
proach to education. The relinquishment of minute controls over method and conduct 
has been thought of as loose discipline and lack of standards. There have been many 
lazy teachers who have talked about creative activity, but have neglected the impor- 
tant element of group planning so that work has been purposeless and esprit de corps 
has been lost. Errors of this kind have frequently been quoted against the newer 




schools, while it has been difficult to secure objective measurement of desirable re- 
sults in support of the basic principles, in schools where there has been sound appli- 
cation. 

J. Wayne Wrightstone, now Assistant Director of the Division of Test and 
Measurements, New York City Board of Education, spent several years in apprais- 
ing newer practices in elementary schools and has produced a good deal of evidence 
to prove that good progressive schools have produced academic results equal to or 
better than good traditional schools, and have in addition, produced more desirable 
social relationships and superior critical thinking. The recent report of the evalua- 
tion staff of the Progressive Education Association which has been studying the suc- 
cess of graduates of progressive high schools in typical American colleges and uni- 
versities has also found that students from progressive schools are at least equal to 
graduates of conventional schools in the academic routine and are far superior in the 
leadership which they furnish in extra-curricular activities. However, all of this 
data has been limited to the classroom and its products. 

A recent study carried on in a large industrial plant at the Western Elec- 
tric Company near Chicago has inadvertently furnished concrete evidence in support 
of the basic theses of progressive education as applied to adult employees in indus- 
try. In 1924 the company employed several efficiency experts from Harvard and 



9 



Massachusetts Institute of Technology to study the conditions under which their 30, 
000 employees worked, to discover what environmental factors influenced production. 
The Readers Digest for February 1941 contains an article by Stuart Chase entitled: 
"What Makes The Workers Like To Work" which summarizes the results of this ex- 
periment.* The study began by assuming that better light would improve output Two 
groups of employees were selected. The "Control Group" worked under a constant 
amount of light; the "test group" was given increasing light. Both groups responded 
with increased output. A dozen different experiments were tried, a majority of which 
increased output for the group with which they were tried. Finally, all of the im- 
provements were canceled and initial conditions restored, and again the output in- 
creased. "They had thought they were returning the girls to 'original conditions' but 
found that those original conditions were gone forever." Some unknown factor, X, 
was operating and had changed the morale of the group with which they were working. 

"This X wasn't in the production end of the factory. It was in the human 
end. It was an attitude, the way the girls felt about their work and their group. By 
asking their help and cooperation, the investigators have made the girls feel impor- 
tant. Their whole attitude had changed from that of separate cogs in a machine to 
that of a congenial group trying to help the company solve a problem. They had found 
stability, a place where they belonged, and work whose purpose they could clearly 
see. And so they worked faster and better than they ever had in their lives. 

Girls Made To Feel Important 

"With this discovery, the results of the Hawthorne lighting experiment 
became clear. Both groups in the lighting test had been made to feel important. So 
their output went up regardless of the candlepower sprayed upon them. With in- 
creased interest in their work, there was an80-per cent decrease in absences. The 
girls were actually eager to come to work. 

"Each girlhad her own technique of placing and assembling parts. Some- 
times she indulged in little variations; the higher her I. Q. the more the variations. 
This helped to give her a real interest in the task. Beware you stop-watch, motion- 
study men, of destroying little ways like this. You may run into the paradox of de- 
creasing output by saving motions. 

"The girls moved about as they pleased, talked as they pleased. Nobody 
shushed them. They discovered they were having a good time, and said so. They re- 
marked also that they felt as if they had no boss. 

"With this sense of freedom came a sense of responsibility, and they be- 
gan to discipline themselves. They worked as a team, helping each other, making up 
each other's work when one of the group was not feeling well, giving parties for one 
another outside the factory. They squabbled a bit but underneath they were members 
of the same gang. They had found here some of the clan unity which the machine age 
has stripped away from so many workers." 



*As reported in "Management and the Worker" by Professor F. L. Roethlisberger 
of Harvard and W. J. Dickson of Western Electric, Harvard University Press. 



10 



Other careful tests confirmed this: Feeling not only counted more than 
hours of labor; they often counted more than wages. How the investigators found that 
the more concern industry paid to its workers as individuals, the greater the im- 
provement in morale, concludes the story. 

Advisors were set up to whom employees were free to talk about their 
troubles. These troubles were personal as well as related to the work of the factory* 
Frequently it became evident that for the morale of the worker it was more impor- 
tant to get his troubles off his chest than to have anything specific done about them. 
"Workers regarding themselves as important around the place began to be with the 
company, rather than against it." Those who did the interviewing, after remember- 
ing what dozens of workers had on their minds, never could think of the employees 
again as units of mere labor. Thus we learn through the meticulous investigation of 
employment practices by a large business concern that the individual is important 
and that to the extent that he feels himself to be personally of value in the planning 
and working out of the work he is expected to do, he does more and better work. So 
at last we have measured evidence that our principles are sound, not only within the 
classroom, but in the organization of a school faculty, of agency personnel, or of a 
business. (Reprinted from "Indian Education", May 1941.) 



11 



With Expert Guidance We Examine Some Results 
Of White Rule Of Indians 

How the old and new worlds, which enter into the experience of American 
Indians are moulding the personalities of Indians, will be studied through field re- 
searches b the University of Chicago in collaboration with the United States Indian 
Service In one aspect this project, just launched, can be described as the first at- 
tempt at a deep and comprehensive study of the native and changing democracies of 
the Indian tribes. 

Designed to provide bases for sounder education and adjustment of the 
364 000 Indians of the United States and indirectly the 30,000,000 Indians in the Amer- 
icas the project is being undertaken by a newly-organized Research Committee on 
Education. The Committee will use as its agents of research field men and women 
of the Indian Service, headed by John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and 
experts of the Committee on Human Development of the University of Chicago, under 
which the project is organized. 

W Lloyd Warner, professor of anthropology and sociology, is chairman 
of the Committee. Other members are Robert J. Havighurst, professor of education 
and secretary of the Committee on Human Development, and Ralph W. Tyler, chair- 
man of the department of education. Dr. Laura Thompson has been named Coordina- 
tor of the research. A native of Honolulu, Dr. Thompson has studied native educa- 
tion and colonial administration in Guam and Fiji and is the author of Fiji Frontier 
and "Guam and Its People." Her study of education in Guam was made for the U. S. 
Navy She went to Germany for anthropological studies in 1934 and remained there 
for most of the next three years, observing the rise of Naziism and its methods of 
indoctrination which are anti-democratic. 

Southwest Tribes To. Be Studied 

Among the personality- shaping factors in the Indian tribes are varying 
amounts of democracy and varying institutions and disciplines which mould the indi- 
vidual for participation in the community life. The Committee will undertake to dis- 
cover how the developing Indian personality is influenced by these variations in the 
degree and type of local democracy. 

At the beginning of the research, tribes will be studied in the Southwest, 
but later, tribes in other parts of the country will be included. 

The Indian Service, in the Department of the Interior, regards the prob- 
lem of adjustment of the American Indian as a dual one of administration and educa- 
tion. 

Prior to the enactment of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, efforts 
were made to assimilate the Indian rapidly and by compulsion into the prevailing 
white culture. The 1934 enactment affirmed the right of the Indians to govern their 
own lives, and presumed that Indians would not be pressed into any one mould. This 
change of governmental policy, Commissioner Collier stated, changed fundamentally 
the nature of the Indian problem and imposed new and different tasks on the Indian 
Service of the Government. The Committee's research will seek to lay a sound foun- 



12 



dation for a better solution of this ever- continuing problem, by its factual investiga- 
tions. 

The Committee will utilize research heretofore conducted among Amer- 
ican Indians, and then, through personnel of the University and personnel of the In- 
dian Service, will conduct extensive field work. Through studying selected age- 
groups, the Committee will attempt to investigate the development of the attitudes of 
the individuals toward the self, toward society and toward nature. 

To determine what the attitudes are, and how they evolve and change, will 
aid the formulation of more effective educational and administrative programs look- 
ing toward the fullest growth of the Indian personality, the Committee said. 

Probably no governmental agtncy until now has undertaken so exhaustive 
an analysis and criticism of its own work and results. The initial study will extend 
across two years, but thereafter it will be carried forward among contrasting tribes 
in many parts of the country. 



An Indian, An Educator, And A War Veteran 

Mr. Robert Charles Starr, educational field agent for the Great Lakes Indian 
Agency, Ashland, Wisconsin, died suddenly on September 1 at the age of 46 years. 

Mr. Starr was born December 19, 1894, on the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian 
Reservation. Both his mother and father were full-blood Indians. He received his 
elementary training at Whirlwind Episcopal Indian Mission, near the place of his 
birth. He attended the Chilocco Indian School, graduating in 1916. In the same year 
he enrolled in the Prep Department of the Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical 
College. 

In the fall of 1917, he enlisted in the United States Army and became a member 
of the Oklahoma and Texas National Guard. He sailed with the 36th Division for 
France in July 1918 and saw service on the Western Front. In April 1919, he was hon- 
orably discharged from the Army and entered Oklahoma A & M College. He was 
graduated with a Bachelor of Science Degree in 1923, having majored in agriculture. 

In 1923, Mr. Starr became associated with Dr. Henry Roe Cloud at Wichita, 
Kansas, where he taught sciences at the American Indian Institute. He resigned from 
the Institute in 1928 and was appointed high school teacher of sciences at Haskell In- 
stitute. 

He obtained leave in 1932 to attend Cornell University, where he received his 
Master of Science Degree in 1933. From 1933 to 1935 he was head of boys' activities 
at Haskell and in January 1936, became educational field agent at the Great Lakes 
Agency. He was active in the American Legion, the Masons and the Cooperative Club 
International (civic). 

He is survived by his widow and one daughter, Teloa. 



13 



INDIANS OF NEVADA SPEAK FOR THEMSELVES 



The Indians of Nevada for five years past have been meeting in an annu- 
al conference for a discussion of the problems of self-government This series of 
conferences was sponsored at the beginning bytheCarson Agency and had for its pur- 
nose the bringing together of Nevada's scattered Indians. Many of these Indians had 
been without effective tribal identification. They were Washoes or Shoshones or 
Paiutes and historically they had belonged to Chief Winnemucca s Band or Towaoc s 
Band or other similar groups. In modern times, however, the band designation 
came to be rather meaningless since the Nevada Indians were scattered up and down 
the long Nevada valleys, working as ranch hands or congregating in shack towns in 
the environs of larger cities. 

Now the character of this annual conference has changed radically. It 
is no longer an Indian Service- sponsored conference. It has been taken over by the 
Indians themselves. The Indian delegates furnish their own transportation to and 
rom Carsrigency. Lodgings and meals are provided by the Carson Indian School, 
excTpf that man^ Indians dlrfng this recent session insisted on paying their own way 
even in this regard. 

The three-day conference, November 6 through the 8th, was attended 
by delegates from Fort McDermitt, Pyramid Lake, Yerington Walker River Reese 
River Duckwater, Dresslerville, Moapa (in the process of adopting a constitution 
and a' charter), Fallon (this group rejected the Indian Reorganization Act but it has 




tried persistently for several years to revote on the question of coming under the 
Act), Western Shoshone, the Te-Moak Bands, and outside of Nevada, Goshute, Shiv- 
wits, Uintah and Ouray and Fort Hall. Many of these delegations covered from 500 to 
1,000 miles in the round trip between their homes and Carson Agency. 

The sessions of the conference were interesting for the tone of in- 
quiry and self- searching which characterized them. Those who had complaints to of- 
fer brought them forward in a good-natured way and evidently in the conviction that 
the condition or situation complained of resulted from temporary and amenable fac- 
tors. There was no ingrained cynicism. The total impression of the conference was 
one of positive development, of paper plans coming into effect, of achievement result- 
ing in enthusiasm, and enthusiasm engendering achievement. 

Much of the success of the Conference was due to George LaVatta's 
great organizing energy and his fine capacity as a presiding officer. The discussions 
were kept in motion and always to the point. The contributions of the Carson Agency 
personnel were indispensable. These contributions were more than a providing of 
facilities and personnel cooperation. The whole Nevada Service and the several re- 
gional offices represented, made themselves available during the three days of the 



I 



15 



conference and without exception the individual employees showed real interest in 
and understanding of the program of tribal self-government. 

Not the least interesting aspect of the occasion was the friendliness 
shown by the State officials attending the banquet closing the conference. It was quite 
evident that Carson Agency has done an excellent job of working cooperatively with 
its neighbors in the State. By D - M - 

Three Nevada Tribes Make 100 Per Cent Credit Record 

By Walter V. Woehlke, Assistant to the Commissioner 

Three of the tribes under the jurisdiction of the Carson Agency in Ne- 
vada, were singled out for congratulations by Commissioner Collier on the one hun- 
dred per cent repayment record they had made during the last fiscal year. These 
letters of commendation went to the Walker River Paiute Tribe, to the Yomba Sho- 
shone Tribe and to the Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribe. 

When the twelve bands of Paiutes, Shoshones and Washoes, under the jur- 
isdiction of the Carson Agency, organized and received charters, they were at the 
bottom of the economic scale and had perhaps the lowest per capita income of any In- 
dian group in the United States. Land was bought for a good many of them and loans 
were made them for livestock and other agricultural enterprises. Though there was 
a good deal of skepticism in the beginning as to the ability of these groups to handle 
the business enterprises, the results achieved during the past four years have demon- 
strated that even the poorest of Indian tribes will respond when the opportunity to 
improve their condition by their own efforts is given them. The record of economic 
and social rehabilitation established by the Indians of Nevada is outstanding. The re- 
payment record established by the three Paiute and Shoshone tribes commended by 
the Commissioner establishes a mark for other tribes to shoot at. 



INDIANS IN DEFENSE- 




18 

Indians In the News 



During the present national emergency the Navajo Indians have 
shown true patriotism. When reporting to their local draft boards, many Navajos 
have brought their guns. In one instance, an 80- year-old medicine man, Dug-Chee- 
Bekis, attempted to enlist in the air corps. Getting their news over some 400 short 
wave receiving sets scattered over the reservation, the Navajo Indians have been well 
informed about the doings of "Mustache Smeller" and "Gourd Chin", as they have 
renamed Hitler and Mussolini. It has been reported that 5,000 Navajos have reg- 
istered, about 200 have been drafted and 150 have enlisted. Houston , Texas . The 
Post. 9-25-41. 



The magic of the white man's medicine was praised by the Supai In- 
dian Tribe in remote Havasu Canyon for arresting the spread of an epidemic of mea- 
sles and pneumonia that caused the deaths of three children before it was checked 
The tribe of about 200 Indians reside at the bottom of a 3,000-foot canyon, about 35 
miles from Grand Canyon. Utica, New York . The Observer-Dispatch. 10-21-41 . 



The remains of Tecumseh, great Shawnee chief, have gone to their 
final resting place on Walpole Island overlooking the St. Clair River. In 1933 a com- 
mittee was formed to provide a suitable memorial to the great chief. Construction 
was begun in 1934. The base was presented by Gar Wood and the casket by the late 
Chris C. Smith. The fund for the proposed monument is being administered by the 
Indian Department at Ottawa. Detroit , Michigan . The News. 8-22-41. 



A compactly designed truck equipped with a motion picture projector 
has done more than any other single factor to acquaint the Navajo Indians with the 
white man's civilization, the Indian Service reports. This visual education unit has 
brought motion pictures of events throughout the world to more than 17,000 Navajos 
in three months. The free motion picture shows started with government programs 
to teach the Indians the advantage of modern farming methods and new ideas about 
conservation, better livestock, health and the need for education. Mystified by the 
motion picture screen, the Navajos were hopeful that the dignitaries shown in the 
newsreels would step out of the screen for a friendly chat. On one occasion a hogan 
where a motion picture was being shown was emptied in a few seconds when a speed- 
ing locomotive was shown on the screen. San Antonio , Texas . The Express . 8-24-41. 

Private Claude Grey, full-blood Sioux Indian from Yankton, South 
Dakota, has the reputation of being the best scout in the Second Army. On a recon- 
naissance patrol during current war games Grey halted his squad with the warning: 
"Stop and take cover. I smell horses." Ten minutes later a cavalry troop galloped 
by. Boise , Idaho. The Statesman . 9-24-41. 



The mission on the Crow Indian Reservation at Crow Agency, Montana, 
has started on its 51st year following ceremonies to celebrate a half century of serv- 



Mrs. Clarence Smith, San Carlos Apache, 
Feeds Her Poultry Flock 



21 



ice. The mission was established in 1893 by the Rev. James G. Burgess and his wife, 
teachers of the Congregational faith. Las Vegas , Nevada. The Review- TournaL 
11-5-41. 



A vocational school for Indians of high school age in North Carolina 
will be established by a board appointed by the Governor. This new school, author- 
ized by the State Board of Education, will be located in Herring Township, Sampson 
County, in a section of North Carolina in which there are many Indians. The school 
will serve Sampson, Hoke, Scotland, Cumberland, Bladen and Person Counties and 
will be called the East Carolina Indian Training School. That the Indian is by no 
means a "vanishing" race in this section is borne out by the fact that there are mor e 
than 800 Indian babies born in North Carolina annually. Boston , Massachusetts . The 
Christian Science Monitor . 11-10-41. 



The United Pueblos Agency has started a $35,000 flood control pro- 
gram to prevent repetition of damage suffered from Rio Grande and Jemez River 
floods last spring. The program will embrace three projects in the Cochiti, Santo 
Domingo and Santa Ana Indian areas, all hard hit by the May torrents. A fourth proj- 
ect is planned for Jemez, where one hundred acres of rich farm land was washed 
away. Peak employment is expected to total one hundred men and the job is due to 
be finished in March. Albuquerque , New Mexico . The Tournal . 11-8-41 . 



Indians and white men whose forefathers smoked the pipe of peace 
at Medicine Lodge, Kansas, 74 years ago to end the Plains warfare joined in a huge 
celebration of the historic peace treaty. Included among the visitors were more 
than 500 Indians attired to represent the five tribes signing the original document in 
1867. Topeka, Kansas . The Tournal . 10-9-41. 



A constitution and by-laws and a national charter were under consid- 
eration by the Cheyenne River Tribal National Council which met at Kyle, South Da- 
kota, recently. Items of general interest to the Sioux Indians were considered. 
Eight reservations were represented - Pine Ridge, Rosebud, Santee, Crow Creek, 
Lower Brule, Standing Rock, Fort Peck and Cheyenne. Sioux Falls, South Dakota. 
The Argus- Leader . 11-9-41. 



Speaking at a recent meeting of the Optimist Club at Asheville, 
North Carolina, Dr. Paul Radin, Professor of Anthropology at Black Mountain Col- 
lege, said that "the peculiar theory, that the American Indian is morose and stolid, 
is entirely wrong; it is simply good manners with the Indian, not to express his 
emotions in public. As a matter of fact," he said, "the Indian and practically all 
aboriginal peoples had an optimistic attitude toward life, because they all had the 
type of social organization that made for optimism. They all recognized that every 
individual has the right to three things as essential to life - food, shelter and cloth- 
ing, insofar as they could be obtained. There was no such thing, in the aboriginal 
state, as one group having these essentials and another being without. Among the 
aborigines generally, and the Cherokee Indians in particular," Dr. Radin said, "free- 
dom of speech was enjoyed, the only requirement being that exercise of that right did 
not interfere with the rights of others." Asheville, North Carolina. The Ashveille 
Citizen. 10-31-41. 



22 



President Of Mexico Tells Of Indian Advancement 

Of probable interest to Indians and friends of Indians everywhere is the state- 
ment of Indian problems and progress as translated from President Avila Camacho's 
recent message to Congress: 

"The Government has tried to increase official action in favor of the Indian 
groups, not only in education, but also in its economic aspect; struggling for the bet- 
terment of living conditions and for the complete development of all talents in the 
group. 

"The budget for this year, destined for this fundamental service, was for three 
million, but eighty thousand pesos more was authorized. 

"There are now actually thirty vocational schools for Indians, one of which was 
created in January of this year. In that same month, four educational units were es- 
tablished - one in the Aztec zone of the Mezcala River in the State of Guerrero; an- 
other, for the Otimies in the Valley of El Mezquital, State of Hidalgo; another for the 
Aztecs of Covomeapan , in the Sierra of Puebla; and the last for the Otomies of Com- 
alco in the State of Mexico. These four missions for the betterment of the Indians 
have experienced success, and each one of these has founded four community schools 
in the various regions of the States in which they are established. 

"Therefore, there are sixteen institutions of this type now functioning, in which 
have been created cooperative associations of consumption; sewing workshops and 
'molinos para nixtamal' (mills for grinding maize); also homes for children have 
been established in which they receive, besides the schooling given them, food and 
adequate clothing. 

Cooperative Associations For The Weaving Of Wool 

"There are now workshops functioning in the Valley of Mezquk-il for the fitting 
and the making of clothing; cooperative associations of consumption; cooperative as- 
sociations for the weaving of El Mith wool; and a credit and deposit center with forty- 
eight foreign agents handling a capital of $76,458.28. There is also being organized 
a center for distribution and consumption with its agents for controlling the purchase 
of those articles necessary for productive work as well as for the sale of these goods 
and production in general, which center now handles some $16,797.85. 

"The cooperative associations which now function in the Valley of Mezquital be- 
gan with a capital of $28,165.12. The statistics which cover the 1st of September to 
the 30th of November of 1940, produced through the sale of its products $30,962.49, 
having 4,679 Indian members; the percentage of the sale of corn as compared with 
the total assets being 53%. In the period covering the 1st of December 1940 to the 
30th of June of this year, the sale of merchandise went up to $101,111.72, and the 
members in the cooperative associations increased to 5,785, corn having represented 
49% of the total assets. 

"The task of defending Indian interests has progressed determinedly, there hav- 
ing been transmitted during the period making up this report 12,600 proposals, which, 
in good portion, were attended to, thereby doing justice to indigenous communities." 



24 



WHAT DO THE OLD MEN SAY? 

By D'Arcy McNickle, Administrative Assistant, Organization Division 

At a recent meeting of Indian tribal officials in the Southwest area, it 
was noticeable that only those Indians who had a command of English arose to speak. 
Others, real leaders in their communities, knowing no English, remained silent 
throughout the four days. Toward the close of the session, one Indian who was not 
too fluent in English, remarked that he felt ill at ease and was not always sure that 
he followed the course of the discussion. He rather implied that he was not smart 
enough to grasp the ideas expressed and he feared that the younger English-speaking 
Indians were too far ahead of him. 

Young Men Speak 

Still later, at a meeting of one of the southwestern tribes, a delegate who 
had attended this inter-tribal conference repeated the thought. Reporting to his 
council, he said: "At the conference I saw young men and they were not afraid to 
speak up. They speak English very well, therefore they could express themselves. 
Here, we do not seem to have anyone, young women or young men, standing up say- 
ing what she or he has to say." 

It is a common mistake to believe that ignorance of a language and gen- 
eral lack of intelligence go together. Americans, non-Indian Americans, I mean, 
feel and act superior toward immigrants coming from a far country. When such a 
foreigner stumbles in his efforts to speak, people feel that he must surely be men- 
tally a little dull. Perhaps they make fun of him. Sometimes they try to make the 
foreigner understand by shouting as if he were deaf. 

This would be funny if it didn't have such an unfortunate effect on the 
foreigner. After he has been laughed at and talked to like a child for long enough, 
the foreigner may begin to feel that he is not liked and that he is not the equal of the 
native-born person. 

Government Partly To Blame 

Something like this seems to have happened to many full-blood Indians 
who, because they cannot use English, feel that they are ridiculed, or will be ridi- 
culed if they attempt to speak for themselves. They have to rely on the young people, 
while they sit in the background. They are unhappy sitting in the background, be- 
cause it is against all custom for them to be without voice. As a mazier of fact, the 
more sensitive of the young people do not like to be in the front doing all the talking. 
They too, realize that they are in a false position and that the privilege of talking 
and making decisions belongs to the elders. 

The Government must acknowledge that it is at least partly to blame for 
the attitude that has grown up through the years. When negotiations were carried 
out in the early days between Government representatives and Indian tribes, the in- 
terpreter or the English-speaking Indian was often given an importance far beyond 
his position in the tribe. A minor chief or a mere interloper who could negotiate 
with the Government through the medium of English speech was often allowed to 
usurp the position of the head chief. Today, unfortunately, there is still a tendency 
to feel that a tribal governing body made up of full- blood Indians with scant knowl- 
edge of English is a "backward" governing body. It is a feeling shared by Indians 



25 



and by Government people. When such a full-blood council proves to be both wise 
and efficient, as has happened often, we express surprise, as if such a development 
were the last thing any one had expected. 

This should not be. It should be possible for rational people to under- 
stand that intelligence is not to be measured by one's ability to use a secondary lan- 
guage. Some languages, it is true, lend themselves to a greater variety of expres- 
sion and so permit an easier exchange of ideas. It is commonly known that most In- 
dian languages do not have equivalent words for ideas and objects found in the Eng- 
lish language. But this should not be a fatal handicap to the exchange of thought. The 
best interpreter is not the person who attempts to translate literally word for word; 
rather, he soaks up the idea expressed, makes it part of his own thought, and then 
restates it in his own words, often at greater economy of verbiage than was used in 
the original statement. 

This suggests that a great deal more thought should be given to the se- 
lection and the training of interpreters than has been true in the past. Indians have 
believed too implicitly that as soon as the younger generation were all fluent in the 
use of English the problems of the tribe would be adequately dealt with. We know 
that this has not been the case. The young people who have learned English have 
sometimes lost all interest in the tribe and have not helped the old people, rather 
they have learned to devote their time to their own interests. Other young people 




26 



who have been away to school, come home and abandon the use of English and do not 
speak it unless circumstances require it. And all this time little, if any thought, has 
been given to developing good interpreters, young people who know English well, but 
equally important, have all the resources of the Indian language at their command. 

Recently, when a delegation from one of the plains tribes was in Washing- 
ton, an older non- English- speaking member of the delegation was considerably dis- 
tressed because he could not make himself understood to the other members of the 
delegation. He used words in his language which the others could barely understand, 
let alone translate; and when they translated English for him, they used a kind of 
jargon which made him impatient. The younger members explained that something 
was happening to their language; that when the younger people spoke it they tried to 
follow the word order of the English language and so produced a confusion which to 
the older people was almost unintelligible, also they interspersed English words in 
the Indian, which was of no help. 

Some Indian Languages Put Into Written Form 

Now that some of the Indian languages are being put into written form, 
much of the difficulty of transferring thoughts from English to the Indian will be a- 
voided. But this process will be a slow one. Possibly, only a few of the Indian lan- 
guages will ever be reduced to written form. 

The Indians, meantime, can do something about it. Maybe it is too much 
to expect that, at any immediate future time, they can undo the damage that has been 
done to their confidence by years of going outside of themselves and outside of their 
language for wisdom in counsel. That may have to wait. But they can see to it at 
once that they have capable interpreters. It is not enough to have as interpreter a 
person who has been to school to learn his English, but who has never taken his n a- 
tive tongue seriously enough to make a study of it. Indian languages, like English, 
cannot be learned by a process of oozing them through the skin. Only study and prac- 
tice can achieve the result. 

In the old Indian home, the learning of one's language was a matter of 
pride. A person who could not speak properly was dis-esteemed. People had no 
confidence in him. The remarkable orators produced by the different Indian tribes 
were not accidentally eloquent; they worked at it. There are still tribes where lan- 
guage is kept up with religious attention to form and content. In too many cases, as 
in the case of the tribe whose delegation was in Washington recently, the young peo- 
ple have not bothered to learn to speak as the old people speak. They are letting the 
native tongue die for lack of interest, perhaps out of sheer laziness. 

It is not inevitable that this should happen. The Indians, if they will, can 
see to that. The older people, who have kept their fluency in the mother tongue, if 
they would interest themselves in the problem, could see to it that their young people 
learn the proper way of speaking. They could go farther and deliberately train some 
few young people for the purpose of making interpreters of them. 

The Indian Service, for its part, would like to cooperate in a training 
program. It could see to it that young people selected for training as interpreters 
were given whatever special help they might need, not in the use of English alone, 
but in any other subjects that might be useful to the tribe. There ought to be a real 
opportunity here to work mutually for the benefit of the tribes and of the Indian Serv- 
ice. 



A Sherman Institute Student Learns 
To Become An Auto Mechanic 



28 



An Exciting Story Of Tragic Fact 

" The Last Frontier ", by Howard Fast. Duell, Sloan and Pearce. $2.50. 
This is an unfortunately dull title for one of the most breathlessly tragic stories ever 
written out of little known American history. Yet when the book is done, one knows 
why the 26-year-old novelist calls it "The Last Frontier." To him the last frontier 
is man's fight for freedom, as much with us today as it was with the little Cheyenne 
village back in 1878 whose simple desire to return to their homes and "live in peace" 
roused a whole nation. The youthful writer dedicates the book to his father "who 
taught me to love not only the America that is past, but the America that will be." 

If you thrilled at Hemingway's description of the Spanish Loyalists' fight, 
if you marveled at Edgar Snow's description of the Chinese Communists' migration 
into the wilderness, then you will thrill over the Cheyennes' daringly impossible 
flight, but it will make you heartsick too because "it is too much with us." The char- 
acters are familiar on the American scene today. The once-young revolutionary Carl 
Schurz, as Secretary of the Interior prefers to forget "the barricades of youth." His 
reaction is bureaucratic. When reporters ask for a statement, he declines to discuss 
the matter. General Sherman is an honest man, but in the Army tradition with little 
feeling for right or wrong. A fact is a fact - these Indians left the Territory against 
the orders of their superintendent - and that's that. 

So Schurz's indecision, so an Indian agent's helplessness, stupidity, and 
lack of imagination brought death to hundreds of Army men and the most cruel, the 
most wicked death to half the little Cheyenne village. The reporter's parting shot at 
Schurz is a challenge to lovers of freedom everywhere - those Army guns, Mr. 
Schurz, "they weren't only pointed at the Indians, they were pointed at you and me." 

Reviewed by Eleanor Williams 



She Did it All With Rice 

Mrs. Caroline Webster, a 67-year-old enrolled Chippewa Indian woman,' 
has raised a family of 11 children and has never had a permanent home. They have 
lived in any kind of a house that they could rent cheap in the small village of White 
Earth. In the spring of 1938, the White Earth Rehabilitation Committee (all In- 
dians) assigned Mrs. Webster Plot No. 34 on the White Earth Rehabilitation project. 
The Committee hesitated in making the assignment as they considered the quarterly 
payments of $13.76 were more than she could possibly meet. 

In checking over the repayment records recently, it was discovered that 
Mrs. Webster was the only assignee who had made advance payments on her home. 
Agricultural Extension Agent Stinson called on Mrs. Webster and learned that she 
had recently returned from the wild rice beds where she had gathered and parched 
sufficient wild rice to meet her third payment and she had enough rice on hand to 
sell for her fourth payment and still had plenty of rice for family use. 

J. George Wright, Patriarch Of The Indian Service 

Just at press time word of the death of J. George W. Wright has been re- 
ceived. He died November 21, at 81 years of age, at his home in Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Wright was an official in the Indian Service for more than 47 years. In the next 
issue we hope to present a detailed article about Mr. Wright. 



INDIANS CONSERVING AND REBUILDING 
THEIR RESOURCES THROUGH CCC-ID 



29 



Young Indian CCC Signal Expert Leaves For British Defense Service 

After playing in jazz bands, repairing radios and selling papers for a liv- 
ing, Robert Woltz, then 17 years old and living in Wichita, Kansas, in December 1938, 
sought different employment. By June 1939, he was at the Signal Peak CCC-ID Camp 
on the Yakima Indian Reservation in Washington, having hitch-hiked from Wichita. 

He spent only a few days with the "brushing out" gang when due to his 
interest, he was put on the telephone construction crew. After two weeks he was pro- 
moted to office work where he remained until midsummer, when he returned home to 
complete his high school studies. The following year, the summer of 1940, he was at 
the Signal Peak CCC-ID Camp Again, and this time he was employed at the office. 

During the winter of 1940 he attended a radio class held at Fort Simcoe, 
where the Signal Peak Camp took up winter quarters. The original camp site, high 
ir. the Cascade Mountains, became buried so deeply in snow that all operations ceased 
and the camp was forced to move down to a lower altitude. Here Bob studied and 
brought up his code speed to approximately 10 words per minute. In January 1941, 
he was assigned to attend the Radio Training Center sponsored by the Chemawa In- 



30 



dian School, Chemawa, Oregon. During this period of training, he increased his code 
speed to 20 words per minute. He also received valuable instruction in telephone 
maintenance and construction. While attending this school, he improved sufficiently 
in radio knowledge to obtain both an amateur radio license (WTIXA) and a commer- 
cial license. 

When the school ended in May, Bob returned to the Signal Peak CCC-ID 
Camp and worked in the office until he was promoted to operator of the Signal Peak 
Radio Station, KTGDA. 

Enlisted In British Technical Service 

While on duty at Signal Peak Station, through the medium of one of the 
technical periodicals, for which he subscribed, he learned of the possibilities of en- 
listment in the British Technical Service with the Civilian Technical Corps of Canada 
as a radio engineer for "Special Duties and Communication Services." This Service 
is organized to operate and maintain the "Radiolocators", a device by means of 
which Great Britain is able to locate and determine the altitude and speed of night 
raiders long before they are able to get within range of the British Isles; thereby 
making it possible for interceptor planes to be in the air and ready to combat the en- 
emy raiders before they reach the Island. 

Bob's salary will not begin at a large figure, but there will be opportun- 
ity for promotion. As soon as he reaches Canada, he will receive a distinctive uni- 
form which will be supplied by the C.T.C. From Canada, he knows not where he will 
be stationed. 

Bob left Yakima, Washington, for Wichita, Kansas, his home, on October 
29, enroute to Montreal. With him he carries the well wishes and "safe return home" 
of the entire population of the Yakima Reservation. 

Indian Auto Mechanics Developed At Phoenix, Arizona, In Defense Service 

Eight Indian tribes - Pima, Yuma, Apache, Chemeheuvi, Papago, Navajo, 
Hualapai and Consolidated Ute - are registered in the CCC-ID National Defense 
Training Center now in progress at Phoenix, Arizona. 

These Indian enrollees are preparing themselves for defense employ- 
ment and all have their names and qualifications registered with the Arizona State 
Employment Service. The training course which covers lathe work, welding, rebor- 
ing and auto mechanics, started October 13 and will continue for a period of eight 
weeks. The instructor, Mr. T. F. Parker, who works under the supervision of the 
Arizona State Board for Vocational Education, expressed a pleasurable surprise at 
the ability displayed by the Indian trainees. "They're O. K." he says. 

Opportunities for employment by trained Indian workmen have never 
been so abundant as now under the National emergency. Many former enrollees in 
CCC-ID are taking their places in various defense industries. 

Superintendent CM. Blair of the Cherokee Indian Agency, North Caro- 
lina, reports that 27 Cherokees have Recently been employed at Fort Bragg construc- 
tion project in that state. 



Superintendent Henry Roe Cloud of the Umatilla Indian Agency, Oregon, 
states that 3 enrollees who completed the defense training courses there are now 
with the Gould-Gerber Construction Company at Pendleton, Oregon, four are with the 
Motanic-Terteling Company at Hermiston, Oregon, and one enrollee is now making 
good with Boeing Aircraft Corporation at Seattle. 

Superintendent A. E. Robinson of the Pima Indian Agency, Arizona, re- 
ports that three former CCC-ID enrollees are employed in the Ajo Copper Mines and 
one is a mechanic in the Southern Pacific Yard and shops at San Diego, California 
"So far as I can learn," says the Superintendent, "all the boys are doing their work 
in a satisfactory manner." 

Superintendent F. H. Phillips of the Taholah Indian Agency, Washington, 
reports 8 former CCC-ID enrollees with the Elliott Construction Company on the 
Bahokus Road, three with the U. S. Engineers at Breakwater, one with the Washing- 
ton Pulp and Paper Corporation, one with Boeing Sheet Metal Company at Seattle, 
7 with the Poison Logging Company, one with the Navy Department at Washington, 
D C and one with the War Department at Mud Mountain Dam. This report covers 
those' whose CCC-ID training was especially directed toward defense employment 
and does not include enrollees who have enlisted or who have been inducted into the 
military services. 



32 



Superintendent F. A. Gross of the Colville Indian Agency, Washington, re- 
ports that 14 former CCC-ID enrollees who received their training at the local Agen- 
cy are now with the Biles-Coleman Lumber Company, near Colville, Washington. 
Concerning the services rendered by these Indians, Mr. R. L. McNett, President of 
the Biles-Coleman Company, stated in a letter dated September 9: "I am wondering 
if you have any more Colville Indians who might be available for work... We are hav- 
ing a few more vacancies at the present time due to some of our employees going to 
college, and if there are any Indians available, would like very much to give them 
work." 

Mr. McNett listed the names of former Indian CCC enrollees now in his 
employ and added, "I can advise you that they are working out very well." These 
men are employed both in the box factory and in the woods. 

Acting Superintendent F. H. Cooper, Keshena Indian Agency, reports two 
former CCC-ID trained enrollees now employed at the Four-Wheel Drive Factory at 
Clintonville, one assembling axles and transmissions, and the other as a road tester. 

And so it goes. Hundreds of Indians who received their training in CCC- 
ID are now making it count in the all-out program for defense of their native land. 

Clay Marcum, Kiowa, Wins Farm Blue Ribbons 

Clay Marcum, former CCC-ID enrollee at the Kiowa Indian Agency, An- 
adarko, Oklahoma, is a very happy man because of, he proclaims, the training he re- 
ceived while working as an enrollee. The desire to return to the farm and make a 
success of it was brought about by his interest in the CCC-ID gardening classes, 
poultry, dairy and farm management instruction given' during leisure time. 

Now, a year ahead of the allotted loan period, Mr. Marcum has paid back 
the $300 which he borrowed from the revolving credit fund in order to start his own 
farming project, and has established himself as a good dependable farmer, well re- 
spected by the community in which he lives. During the summer months the Mar- 
cums rely upon their farm livestock for support, and he explains, "The proceeds 
from our cows feed the horses, hogs, chickens, themselves, and us." They had food- 
stuff enough to carry them through the winter, and they have made a good start to- 
ward a bank account. 

Recently, during the American Indian Exposition and the Kiowa County 
Fair, Mr. Marcum's farm products were all blue ribbon winners. 



Kye Yakeyonney, Milton Lopez and Joe Bascus are all working for the 
Post Exchange, at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and Whitt Choney, former CCC-ID enrollee 
camp cook is now Assistant Indian Baker at Fort Sill Indian School, Lawton, Okla- 
homa. 




Navajo CCC-ID Worker Learns Use Of Equipment 
On A Ditch Construction Project 



34 



IN THIS MOMENT IN HISTORY JUST WHAT IS NEWSP 

By Claude C. Cornwall 

With Most Of The World Absorbed In Problems 
Of War Or Defense, The Contributions Of In- 
dians To Our Own National Security Have A 
Particular Timeliness. And Other Items Of 
CCC News Are Worthy Of Attention Too . 

One of the constant calls on our office is for interesting and important 
items of "news." The general public wants to know what the Indian enrollees in the 
CCC are doing. And with every appeal for such stories is the urgent request: 
"Please let us have some PICTURES! ' 

Well, we try to meet these requests. Patiently we search reports and 
letters and particularly the illustrated summaries, for items which have that pecul- 
iar elusive value which will qualify as "news." Pictures are carefully scrutinized 
to determine if they are photographically adequate for reproduction, if there are suf- 
ficient contrasts of light and shade, if the faces of the principal characters or the de- 
tails of objects are clearly enough defined. Most of all, we look to discover if the 
picture tells a story, if it will convey information without necessity of a caption. Such 
pictures are rare you may be sure, and there is great rejoicing when one is found. 
The same is true of news items, particularly as to details. 

So this appeal is being addressed to those persons in our field organiza- 
tions who are willing to train themselves in the art of taking pictures which will 
serve as acceptable illustrations for news stories, and to those who are willing to 
spend the necessary energy to develop In themselves a nose for news. It isn t al- 
ways necessary to have a high-priced camera, if you are skillful, nor do you need 
literary ability, if your nose is keen. In copy and in pictures we just want the truth, 
but it must be told in a reasonably interesting manner. 

You who are out where things are happening constitute our only source of 
supply. Often a good story is right where you are, but for lack of that developed 
sense of value, you pass it by as mere routine. Only last week we discovered a note 
on the bottom of an EP2 report which said, "One of our former enrollee tractor op- 
erators is now driving an Army tank." That is all it said - no name, no date, no 
where, no why, no how - and no PICTURE. 

Just now the emphasis in news is on our part in strengthening the Nation's 
defense and on employment achieved as a result of CCC-ID training. But such sto- 
ries can soon become drab and, by their sameness, lose entirely their news value - 
unless some unusual situation is encountered. 

The above-mentioned item "Indian CCC Enrollee Goes From Tractor To 
Tank" has all the elements of unusualness which will make it news, provided the 
story is expanded to give all the pertinent facts, and is accompanied by an illustra- 
tion shows the enrollee in action. News is like gold - it is where you find it. So we 
appeal to you to add this skill to your accomplishments to train yourself to see news, 
and to take acceptable pictures to illustrate the story. You will thus do yourselves 
and your organization a great service; 



LITTLE INDIANS SPEAK 

People said, "Indian Children are hard to teach. 

Don t expect them to talk. 

One day stubby little Roy s aid 

< « Last night the moon went all the way w 

When I went out to walk. 

People said, "Indian Children are very silent. 

Their only words are no and yes. 

Z smali y ra gg ed Pansy is «*. 

People said, "Indian Children are dumb. 

Thev seldom make a reply. 

Clearly I hear wee Delores answer^ 

"Yes the sunset is so good. IUnnK uooi * „ 

a bright shawl around the shoulders of the sky. 

People said, "Indian Children have no affection. 

They just don't care for ^jone er> 

Then I feel Ramon s tiny hand and n^ slee p S 

"A. wild animal races in me since my 

under the ground. 

Will it always run and run I 

People said, "Indian Children are rude. 
They do not seem very bright. 

S u„ is staring at her. White people always stare. 

They do not know it is not polite. 

people said "Indian Children never take you in. 

Side their thought, = ^fflpt^ 

I have 'orgotten the tdU words that P ^ 

rdfsSpeVfntolh^t ot Pitna Land. 

By Juanita Bell. 



•i